Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.)
dehino 'smin yatha dehe
kaumaram yauvanam jara
dhiras tatra na muhyati
The Second Chapter is the summary study of the Bhagavad-gita. The First Chapter is the preparatory study of Bhagavad-gita, and the Second Chapter is the summary study of the contents of Bhagavad-gita. Bhagavad-gita means the song sung by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Bhagavata. From the word bhagavata, we speak Bhagavan. Bhagavan, here, in the Bhagavad-gita you'll find everywhere: sri bhagavan uvaca. So it is the science of understanding God. Yad vijnana-samanvitam. Jnanam te pravaksyami yad vijnana-samanvitam. It is a vijnana. Vijnana means science. As everything is understood thoroughly through a scientific process, similarly, if you want to know the science of God, then you have to adopt the process by which one can understand God. That process is described in the Bhagavad-gita: bhaktya mam abhijanati [Bg. 18.55]. Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He says, "If anyone wants to understand Me, then he has to take the process of devotional service," not by the speculative process or by fruitive activities, or by yogic process, mystic yogic process. It is clearly stated. Not only in Bhagavad-gita. In all other Vedic scripture.
athapi te deva padambuja-dvaya-
prasada-lesanugrhita eva hi
janati tattvam bhagavan-mahimno
na canya eko 'pi ciram vicinvan
One can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead by His mercy only. Athapi te deva padambuja-dvaya-prasada-lesanugrhita eva hi. Anyone who has received a small particle of the prasadam, mercy of the Lord, he can understand the Lord. Nobody can understand the Lord perfectly. It is not possible because the Lord is unlimited. We have got our senses very limited. Our senses are not only limited, but also imperfect. We commit illusion. We try to cheat. So many defects are there. Therefore simply by exercising our senses it is not possible to understand God.
So to know God, "God is very good, God is great," that is another thing. The science of God... Just like Bhagavad-gita, by studying Bhagavad-gita, we know not only "God is great," but we see what kind of God He is, what is His form. Sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah. We have heard in the sastras that
isvarah paramah krsnah
anadir adir govindah
Now that isvara, sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, how He appears sac-ci d-ananda-vigraha? Those who are present, of course, they saw the sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, but because not all of them were devotees, they could not understand Krsna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritam [Bg. 9.11]. Because He appeared just like a human being, so mudhas... Mudhas means less intelligent, or, in plain word, asses. Mudha means ass. So this class of men could not understand Krsna, that He's the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is the defect of the mudhas. They may be very great scholars, academic scholar, but in the matter of understanding God, they're mudhas, asses. Why? Mayaya apahrta-jnana asuram bhavam asritah [Bg. 7.15]. At the present moment, people are mostly asuram bhavam asritah. Asuri, asuri bhava means to defy God: "There is no God. God is dead. I am God. You are God. So many Gods are loitering in the street. Why you are finding out God?" These are so many statements. So God has become so cheap. There are so many incarnations of God, especially in India. It is a breeding ground of Gods, so many. So that is, means they do not know what is God. Mudha. They think God is so cheap thing. But from the sastra we understand, from Bhagavad-gita we understand... When Krsna was asked by Arjuna, "How You are controlling the whole cosmology, Your vibhuti, Your power, energies?" So Krsna explained, and the, at last, He concluded,
kim jnatena tavarjuna
vistabhyaham idam krtsnam
ekamsena sthito jagat
"The whole cosmology, material world, is just sustained by My partial manifestation of energies." Ekamsena. This material cosmology, material manifestation, is one fourth demonstration of God's energy. The three-fourths manifestation of His energy is the spiritual world. Paras tasmat tu bhavo 'nyo 'vyakto 'vyaktat sanatanah [Bg. 8.20]. There is another nature which is spiritual nature, para, superior. The spiritual nature is described as para. Para means beyond this apara. There are two energies working, material nature and spiritual nature. Material nature, it is described in the Bhagavad-gita: bhumir apo 'nalo vayuh kham mano buddhir eva bhinna me prakrtir astadha [Bg. 7.4]. These eight types of material nature -- earth, water, fire, air, sky, mind, intelligence and ego -- these are material nature. Bhinna prakrtir astadha. They are separated energies. Apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakrtim param. Beyond this. These are inferior, apara. And beyond this apara-prakrti, there is another, superior prakrti. What is that? Jiva-bhutam maha-baho yayedam dharyate jagat [Bg. 7.5]. That is the living entity.
So living entity, living being, is energy of the Supreme Lord. Energy. Just like the sun and the sunshine. Sunshine is the energy of the sun globe. Similarly, we living entities, we are also energies of the Supreme Lord. What is this sunshine? It is a combination of a very small shining particles, molecular. That is sunshine. It looks like one homogeneous thing, but they are small particles. That is scientific understanding. Similarly, we are also a small particle of the Supreme Lord. Mamaivamso jiva-bhutah [Bg. 15.7]. We are a small particle. How much small? What is the magnitude? That is also described in the sastra. Kesagra-sata-bhagasya satadha kalpitasya ca, jiva-bhago sa vijneyah sa anantyaya kalpate [Cc. Madhya 19.140]. There is dimension of the living entity -- one ten-thousandth part of the tip of the hair. So it is very difficult with our, these material eyes. We are very much proud of our eyes. But here is the indication from the sastra, the length and breadth of the living soul. Now, you find out, with your eyes, your microscope. That is not possible. Because they cannot find out, they say, nirakara. Nirakara. In one sense, it can be supported that we cannot ascertain the forms of the soul. And what, how we can ascertain the form of the Lord? Anor aniyan mahato mahiyan.
So spiritual education means, spiritual enlightenment means, first of all, we must try to understand the jiva. Because jiva is the small particle of the Lord. So that we can understand the quality of the Lord. Just like if you test a small particle of gold, then you can understand the composition of gold. If you test a little drop of water from the ocean, you can analyze the chemical composition of the sea. Similarly, if you can analyze the characteristics of the living entity, then you can at least understand what is God, what is the characteristics of God. Therefore the beginning of spiritual education is to understand one's self, this self-realization. How to realize self? We have to take knowledge from others. Knowledge means..., to acquire knowledge, to learn from the teacher. So here is the supreme teacher, Krsna. Krsna is accepted as the supreme teacher by everyone, by all the great sages formerly, like Vyasadeva, Narada, Devala, Asita. All other great sages. And recently, in the modern age, by our acaryas, Sri Ramanujacarya, Madhvacarya, Ramanuja, yes, Sankaracarya, Visnusvami. All these great sages, great acaryas, they came from your South India. So you are fortunate in that sense. So we have to follow the acaryas. All these acaryas accept Krsna, the Supreme Lord. All these acaryas. And later, lately, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, five hundred years ago, He also accepted that Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Krsnas tu bhagavan svayam [SB 1.3.28]. That is the acceptance in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. Similarly, Lord Brahma also accepted Krsna:
isvarah paramah krsnah
anadir adir govindah
So we have got so many evidences. So we have to accept Krsna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. There is no doubt about it. But why people do not accept? Why are so many big, big scholars and big, big scientists, why they do not accept Krsna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead? That is also stated in the Bhagavad-gita, how these people do not accept. The statement is there:
na mam duskrtino mudhah
asuram bhavam asritah
Those who are duskrtina, sinful, duskrtina... Krti means meritorious, and dus means..., means miscreants, meritorious for mischief-making. We, everyone has got merit. The mischief-maker, he has also got merit, but one who uses his merit for mischief-making... Just like a great rogue, a thief. When he steals, he requires brain. So he's applying his brain, how to steal tactfully, how to become a great rogue tactfully. How to become a smuggler... They require also brain. So the brain is being misused for mischievous activities. They are called miscreants, duskrtina. So those who are duskrtina... Na mam prapadyante, na mam duskrtino mudhah [Bg. 7.15]. One class is duskrtina and the other class is mudha. Mudha means less intelligence, or no intelligence. na mam duskrtino mudhah prapadyante naradhamah. And naradhama means the lowest of the mankind. And mayaya apahrta-jnanah, those whose knowledge have been taken by maya, asuram bhavam asritah. These classes of men do not surrender unto Krsna. We are not manufacturing these words. These words are in the Bhagavad-gita. If we study Bhagavad-gita, we have to accept the statements, Bhagavad-gita. Bhagavad-gita means the speeches which is delivered, or the song which is sung by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
So our Krsna consciousness movement is to preach all over the world that krsnas tu bhagavan svayam [SB 1.3.28]. You are searching after God. You are taxing your brain so much. But in spite of taxing your brain, you say sometimes that "There is no God," or "God is dead," or "Everyone is God," and so on, so on. But our proposition is that why you are taxing your brain? Here is God. Here is God, Krsna. By authorities, by Vedic version, by His activities. If we read life of Krsna, we can see that He's Krsna, God, from the very beginning of His birth. God is not manufactured by some mystic power. God is God, and dog is dog. A dog cannot become God; God cannot become dog. That is the difference.
So Krsna was God from the very beginning. As soon as Krsna took birth, He appeared in four-handed Visnu-murti. But when He was prayed by His mother to become an ordinary child, He became an ordinary child with two hands. So that is God, from the very beginning. Not that, by attaining some mystic power, one can become God. You can have some power, godly... You have already power. Because we are, every one of us is a part and parcel of God. Therefore godly qualities are there. But you cannot become cent percent God. That is not possible. That is not possible. There, they..., they have been analyzed. All the demigods and living entities, they have been analyzed by great stalwart people, and it has been found that Krsna is cent percent God. Krsnas tu bhagavan svayam. Ete camsa-kalah pumsah krsnas tu bhagavan svayam [SB 1.3.28]. All others... There are many other gods. Then gods means not the Supreme God. Isvarah paramah krsnah [Bs. 5.1]. We are speaking of the paramah isvarah, or Paramesvara. There are two words: isvara, paramesvara; atma, paramatma. That param is God. We are Brahman; Parabrahman. So Parabrahman, Paramatma, Paramesvara, all these are applicable to Krsna. Just like Arjuna, after hearing Bhagavad-gita, he admitted, param brahma param dhama pavitram paramam bhavan, purusam sasvatam adyam [Bg. 10.12]. That is the position of Krsna. Adi-purusam. Govindam adi-purusam. Krsna also says, in the Bhagavad-gita, aham adir hi devanam [Bg 10.2]. Devanam, Brahma, Visnu, Mahesvara... Then, after Brahma, Visnu, Mahesvara, there are other demigods, Indra, Candra, Varuna, so many. So Krsna says, aham adir hi devanam. Aham sarvasya prabhavah. He's the origin of everything. Aham sarvasya prabhavo mattah sarvam pravartate [Bg. 10.8]. "Everything emanates from Me." In the Vedanta-sutra also the Absolute Truth is described as janmady asya yatah [SB 1.1.1]. The Absolute Truth is that from whom everything emanates.
So here is Krsna. From sastric evidences, by His opulences, by His power... Because Bhagavan means full of six opulences. Aisvaryasya samagrasya viryasya yasasah sriyah (Visnu Purana 6.5.47). He must be the richest. He must be the strongest. He must be the most famous. He must be the most beautiful. He must be the great renouncer. In this way, that is the definition of God. So that definition is confirmed by Lord Brahma: isvarah paramah krsnah [Bs. 5.1]. Isvara means controller. Unless one is powerful, how he can control? So every one of us is little, a small controller. Somebody controls in his office. Somebody controls in his family life. Somebody controls a few factories. There are controllers. But nobody can say that "I am the supreme controller." That is not possible. The supreme controller is Krsna.
So this Krsna consciousness movement means we are trying link up our connection with the supreme controller. We do not wish to become the controller. We want to be controlled -- but by the supreme controller, not by others. That is our proposition. Just like generally, one who is in service, he hankers after government service. Because it is natural conclusion that "If I have to serve somebody, why a petty merchant? Why not take government service?" So that is our proposition, that we have to serve. The... We cannot do but serve. Any one of us. That is our constitutional position. Any one of us, we are sitting here, we are servant. Every one of us is servant. So our proposition is that you are servant in any case. Why not become servant of God? That is our proposition. That is Krsna consciousness movement.
So kamadinam kati na katidha palita durnidesah. We are servant of our senses, kama-krodha-moha-matsarya, all these. By, dictated by our lusty desires, we do anything which is abominable. Tesam kati na katidha palita durnidesah. So we are servant, everyone. Therefore, Caitanya Mahaprabhu says, jivera svarupa haya nitya-krsna-dasa [Cc. Madhya 20.108-109]. Our real constitutional position is that we are eternal servant of God, Krsna. That is our position. But in this material condition of life, every one of us is trying to become the master. That is the struggle for existence. Everyone is trying: "I shall become the master. I shall become the Supreme." But our position is servant. So this is called illusion. I am not master. I am servant. But I am trying to become master artificially. That is struggle for existence. And mukti means, liberation means, when you give up this wrong idea that "I am master," and try to become the servant of the Supreme. That is called liberation. Liberation does not mean that after liberation we'll have a big, gigantic form or so many hands, so many legs. Liberation means to become liberated from the wrong consciousness. That is liberation. The wrong consciousness is that "I am master." So we have to change this consciousness. That is Krsna consciousness movement. One has to understand thoroughly that he's not master. He's servant. He's completely dependent on the supreme will. If we do not surrender unto the supreme will, then we have to surrender unto the will of maya. We have to remain a servant. If we don't..., reject service, or servitude of the Supreme Lord, then we have to become the servant of the senses. That is maya. Actually, that is going on. The whole world is serving different types of senses. Senses are one, the same, but they have got different desires. So they are servant of different desires.
Now the Krsna consciousness movement is... It is not manufactured by us. We get it from Bhagavad-gita: sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja [Bg. 18.66]. Krsna says that "You give up all these nonsense desires. You surrender unto Me." That is the whole purpose of Bhagavad-gita. We are dictated by different types of desires, which is dictated by maya, and we want to become master falsely. This is called illusion. This is called maya. Actually, you are not master. How we can become master? Because we may be very scientifically advanced. We may manufacture very wonderful machine and weapon, but after all, we are subjected to the rules of maya: janma-mrtyu-jara-vyadhi-duhkha-dosanudarsanam [Bg. 13.9]. You cannot get out of these four principles of maya's machinery janma-mrtyu-jara-vyadhi. Therefore the sane man, who is actually learned, he surrenders to Krsna. Bahunam janmanam ante jnanavan mam prapadyate [Bg. 7.19]. Actually when one becomes wise, he surrenders to Krsna. Jnanavan mam prapadyate. Otherwise, who is Krsna? "I am as good as Krsna. I am God." That is maya. That is not actually knowledge. In the Srimad-Bhagavatam it is said, ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninah. They are thinking that they have become liberated, become Narayana, or God. Maninah, they are thinking like that. Actually, they are not, because they're subjected to the rules of the material nature. They cannot get out of these clutches. Who can get out of these clutches? Mam eva ye prapadyante. Krsna says, "Anyone who surrenders unto Me..."
daivi hy esa gunamayi
mama maya duratyaya
mam eva ye prapadyante
mayam etam taranti te
So therefore this Krsna consciousness movement is very pious movement, the most, the most glorious welfare activities. And we are preaching this movement all over the world. Just to place Krsna... Our only ambition is that to place Krsna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is our proposition. We don't want to become Krsna, but we want to become the most obedient servant of Krsna. That is our proposition. So we invite everyone, from all parts of the world, and they are coming, they are joining. So in India Krsna appeared. India has got a special advantage to understand Krsna, and the Indians neglect it. That's a great misfortune, but we request everyone to join this movement, study the philosophy and become happy. That is our proposition. Thank you very much. Hare Krsna. [break]
Indian: ...gavad-gita that the atma and jivatma is the same vision, and Brahman or Parabrahman is the same. And in knowledge of soul truth, the atma is the part and parcel of the Paramatma, that is the Supreme Lord, and this contradiction in this, I think, that how the atma and Paramatma is both one? Containing both, if the atma is part and parcel of the Paramatma, and when they, the atma and the great and Paramatma, is different. Because is contradiction in the understanding may accept what the Vedas say and what Bhagavad-gita say? Is there any difference between the Vedas and Bhagavad-gita? Are we following Vedas, or are we following Bhagavad-gita? Because the Bhagavad-gita is only song of Lord Krsna; the Vedas are the pure knowledge of Parabrahman.
Prabhupada: So why you are going away? You hear. You hear. Vedas... The... In the Bhagavad-gita it is said, vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah: [Bg. 15.15] "All the Vedas and Vedantas, they are meant for understanding Krsna." If by studying Vedas and Vedanta you cannot understand Krsna, then it is srama eva hi kevalam. It is simply labor. That is the adjustment of Bhagavad-gita and all other Vedic literature. Vedas means... Veda means knowledge, and anta means ultimate. That is called Vedanta. So ultimate knowledge is to know God. You may not accept Krsna. Although all the acaryas... I have already mentioned. Even Sankaracarya, he also accept Krsna: sa bhagavan svayam krsna. So the Ramanujacarya, Madhvacarya, they have all accepted Krsna: the ultimate knowledge of Vedic understanding. Many acaryas, they have written notes on Vedanta, targeting Krsna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. So we have to follow the footprints of the great stalwart acaryas. Acaryopasanam. Mahajano yena gatah sa panthah [Cc. Madhya 17.186]. If we follow the footprints of the acaryas, then we find there is no distinction between Vedanta and Bhagavad-gita. Vedanta, you might be referring to the Vedanta-sutra of Sankaracarya, but all the acaryas, the have written notes on Vedanta. Srimad-Bhagavatam is the original comment on Vedanta. Srimad-Bhagavatam begins with the Vedanta-sutra: janmady asya yatah [SB 1.1.1]. So Vedanta does not mean godlessness. Vedanta means to know God. That is real study of Vedanta.
Syamasundara: He wanted to know what is the difference between Paramatma and atma.
Prabhupada: Paramatma and atma, it is not very difficult to know. Just like you are father and you have got many children at home. So they, because they are children, they are, I mean to say, as ingredients, you and your children are the same, but still, you are superior, and the children are dependent. Your children are not different from you, but still, you are superior and they are inferior or junior. So qualitatively one, but quantitatively different. So quantitatively different -- atma, Paramatma; and qualitatively one -- atma is spirit, Paramatma is spirit. It is called acintya-bhedabheda-tattva, simultaneously one and different. One in quality, different in quantity. You can create. You are also qualitatively one with God. You have got creative power. Just like we are creating this flying machine, sputniks. That is also flying in the sky, and the Paramatma has created the millions of planets floating in the sky. So you have got the creative power, but you cannot create like that, Paramatma. That is the difference. Can you?
Indian: My question was very simple.
Prabhupada: Yes. The answer is also very simple. Paramatma is great. You are small. That's all.
Indian: But whether the, our atma is the part and parcel of the atma, Paramatma.
Indian: Paramatma is entirely different from the atma and...
Prabhupada: That I will explain. In quality, you are one. Because a particle of gold is also gold. But the gold mine is not equal to the gold earring. That is mistake.
Indian: They say atma is the Paramatma.
Various Indians: Not, not, the... Not the whole.
Prabhupada: Not the... One is great. Another is small. That is the difference. Quality is the same.
Indian: That means Paramatma and the atma...
Prabhupada: Quality same.
Indian: Quality same
Prabhupada: Quantity different.
Indian: But the atma, it is functioning in the body.
Indian: Is, according to the Paramatma, it is entirely different from the Paramatma.
Prabhupada: According to the Paramatma.
Indian: Every, our action is according to the Paramatma.
Indian: So why do you abuse one person to other person?
Indian: Why a person,...
Indian: ...to abuse other person, he says many things...
Prabhupada: But you should remember that you are in quality Paramatma. So Paramatma has got supreme independence. You have got little independence also. You, when you misuse that little independence, you create havoc.
Indian: Who is responsible for the creation of this...?
Indian: Who is responsible for the creation of this material...?
Prabhupada: Well, responsible... Just like father creates children. But if he becomes a thief, does it, does it mean the father is responsible? What is your idea?
Indian: The children. (?)
Indian: The children... But He's the big father. (?)
Prabhupada: Father creates children, but a child becomes a rogue. Does it mean the father creates a rogue?
Indian: No, the thievery is on account of bad...
Prabhupada: That is, that is the... Karanam guna-sango 'sya sad-asad-janma-yonisu [Bg. 13.22]. You are independent. You can associate with different qualities of nature, and then your character is spoiled. That is your independence. Here God's instruction is sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam [Bg. 18.66]. You do not abide by that. You create your own independence. Therefore you suffer. Father says, "My dear boy, do like this. You'll be happy." But he does in a different way. Who is responsible, the father or the son?
Indian: Supposing... If independence is equal in...
Prabhupada: If you, if you work according to the instruction of God, then you'll be happy. That is our proposition.
Indian: No, my question is..., difference between the service to the human being and the service to...
Prabhupada: Just like if you water on the leaf, and if you water on the root, which is better?
Indian: The root.
Prabhupada: That's it. But if you water the leaf, means you waste your time. Because by watering the leaf, you cannot make the tree living. Similarly, the sastra says that water on the root. Yatha taror mula-nisecanena trpyanti tat-skandha-bhujopasakhah [SB 4.31.14]. If you water the root, automatically the branches, the twigs, the leaves, they become invigorated. But if you water the leaf, you simply you think that you are doing service, but you are doing nothing. Chant Hare Krsna. (end)